This is a tricky question. Here’s a bit of information we can share. You may have heard that graphite pencils are made out of graphite. That’s not correct. It’s also not true that graphite is so poisonous that you cannot remove it from pencils without causing serious injury.
We are going to talk about what makes a pencil strong and safe, not how the graphite is made.
If you remove graphite from an edge and try to restore it (with sandpaper with a soft, fine blade, for example), it can become hard and brittle. We’ve already known that. What many aren’t aware of is that there’s a lot more to the graphite than just it being an interesting metal.
What makes it strong? Here’s a breakdown of what makes it so hard.
We’ll start with the chemical composition, then the nature of graphite.
Chemical Chemical composition: graphite (CaSO 4 )
Number of carbon atoms : 22
Number of hydrogen atoms (also called graphite atoms): 28
Number of oxygen atoms (also called graphite isotopes): 0
Number of carbon atoms : 14
Number of hydrogen atoms (also called hydrogen atoms): 2 and 0 (yes, you got that right!)
Number of oxygen atoms : 29
Cup capacity : 100-1000 cc
H ouput : H x SiO 2
Voltage @ 10V : 1.2-3.2V
So what makes it so hard?
Well, a lot of chemistry. The carbon atoms in graphite all have extra electrons. This keeps them from being negatively charge when they meet negatively charged oxygen atoms. The electrons are not negative because there’s no charge! The carbon atoms (which are often called carbon atoms) also have more than 21 protons.
These additional protons give some of the graphite its special properties, which are shown in the diagram below.
We’ve already made a graphite powder by starting in a very cold room with dry air and baking soda. We can make a graphite rod and put it in a vase, and use it as a tool for pulling out large pieces (not for drawing, although that can be used instead). We can also use it as a pencil. When the graphite is hot, it melts. This process is called melting. The graphite particles get in the way before
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